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Daphnia magna

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Daphnia magna...

E' interessantissimo questo piccolo crostaceo del genere Daphnia, appartenente all’Ordine dei Cladòceri, noto anche come “pulce d’acqua”. Deriva il suo nome dalla ninfa Dafne, vive in acqua dolce, prevalentemente in acque basse, prive o con poca corrente.  

CARATTERISTICHE

Il ciclo di vita naturale delle Daphnia può durare da 50 a 85 giorni in relazione a vari fattori ambientali, non ultimo l’abbondanza di cibo ne accorcia la vita.

La riproduzione avviene abitualmente per “partogenesi” con produzione di uova dalle quali nascono regolarmente solo femmine. Quando le condizioni ambientali non sono ottimali, da alcune uova nascono dei maschi che avranno la funzione di fecondare le altre uova.

A differenza delle altre, le uova fecondate dai maschi presentano una maggiore resistenza ed acquisiscono la capacità di resistere integre anche per decine di anni, prima di riattivarsi. In particolare, in questa come in tante altre specie, colpisce come situazioni ambientali disagiate possano modificarne radicalmente la modalità riproduttiva, passando da una riproduzione partenogenica ad una sessuata, che prevede cioè la fecondazione.

Le uova partenogenetiche vengono deposte entro la camera incubatrice situata dorsalmente tra il corpo ed il carapace e si schiudono in pochi giorni. Le uova fecondate sono invece emesse in involucri particolari detti efippi e persi insieme all'esoscheletro con la muta. La colonia potrà morire, ma le uova consentiranno la sopravvivenza della specie:

A tale argomento è stato dedicato un articolo specifico dal titolo "Strategie riproduttive - Daphnia magna", con bellissime ed inusuete immagini riprese durante la mia esperienza con questo interessantissimo crostaceo.

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I maschi di Daphnia magna sono più piccoli delle femmine; le femmine adulte possono arrivare a raggiungere anche 6 mm, mentre un maschio adulto non supererà i 2 mm. 

Il filmato che segue mostra la particolare "danza" delle Daphnia magna... al  loro particolare movimento si deve forse il soprannome di "pulce d'acqua":

FILMATO

La danza della Daphnia magna osservata in vasca - (Video in macroripresa)
(Riferimento:
http://youtu.be/dfRAm4-PCi0

Le Daphnia sono rivestite di un carapace rigido, intessuto di una finissima struttura di disegni poligonali, che mutano 5 volte nel corso della vita. La testa presenta doppie antenne: le prime due hanno funzione tattile ed olfattiva, mentre le seconde due, più grandi servono come organi di movimento.

Le piccole zampe presenti sull’addome (10 o 12 a seconda della specie) hanno assunto nel percorso evoluzionistico dell’animale, una funzione di setaccio, utilizzato mentre convogliano l’acqua verso un condotto presente sull’addome, tra le due ali del carapace, dove ne viene prelevato l’ossigeno. In questa azione piccole particelle in sospensione vengono indirizzate dalle zampe verso la bocca.

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Un altro interessante organo delle Daphnia sono gli occhi: da uno a due (a seconda delle specie) sono di tipo composto (simili a quelli più complessi delle mosche, delle api, ecc.), costituiti da numerosi cristallini (da poche decine sino a qualche centinaia – a seconda della specie) che convogliano i raggi luminosi su un tessuto sensibile collegato al cervello.

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Le Daphnia hanno sviluppato un cuore a forma di botte con due sole cavità, capace di battere sino a 300 battiti al minuto. Sono dotati di un sistema vascolare incompleto formato da membrane tese (e non vene) in cui circola una emolinfa trasparente ma contenente emoglobina. Pur essendo dotati di un pungolo, le Daphnia non pungono.

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ALLEVAMENTO
ESPERIENZE

Osservo questi piccoli crostacei da oltre 3 anni, allevandoli in contenitori adatti all'osservazione (tipo trasportino per i pesci) di circa 8 lt (ovviamente vasche più grande aumentano le probabilità di condurre un allevamento con successo - leggi l'articolo dedicato: "Daphnia magna - Sintesi di un Allevamento di Successo").

Le vaschette, senza filtro e dotate di una copertura che lascia passare liberamente l'aria, sono poste davanti ad una finestra che  non riceve luce diretta de sole, ma solo luce indiretta; questo evita di far raggiungere all’acqua temperature eccessive per via dell'irraggiamento solare, da evitare anche per brevi periodi.  

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Le Daphnia soffrono nell'acqua calda - quindi il periodo più critico per loro è l'estate. L'esposizione alla luce dello spettro solare stimola invece la crescita delle alghe unicellulari. Tenerla in casa, dove comunque la temperatura generalmente, sia in estate che in inverno, non raggiunge valori eccessivi è comunque sempre consigliabile, anche nella stagione fredda, dato che sotto i 10°C sembra che questo bellissimo crostaceo non riesca a sopravvivere. Nei primi anni di esperienza le vasche di allevamento non erano dotata né di filtro, ne di un fondo tradizionali: è quindi l'acqua stessa e la normale fanghiglia che si depositerà sul fondo, che assolveranno alla funzione biologica di denitrificazione dell'acqua.

Successivamente ho optato per dotare le vasche di un minino fondo in sabbia fine.  Questo ha contribuito nel rafforzare la capacità rigenerativa del ciclo dell'azoto del micro ecosistema creatosi.  Quando si parte con una piccola colonia di “start” l'acqua iniziale deve essere già ben matura (prelevata da un acquario), meglio se tenuta qualche settimana sotto il sole per promuovere la formazione di preziosissime alghe unicellulari; l'utilizzo di acqua non "matura" è pericoloso, in quanto, già dopo pochi giorni tutte le Daphnia delle colonia verrebbero sterminate dall'alto livello di nitriti (NO2) che nei primi giorni  giorni tenderanno a raggiungere e superare il valore 3mg/lt. 

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L'acqua è bene che non sia particolarmente tenera: io uso acqua con conducibilità elettrica di almeno 500/600 uS/cm (a 20°C); questo valore nel tempo tenderà a salire! E’ buona cosa far condividere la vaschetta delle Daphnia con delle lumachine acquatiche. Parliamo delle innocue Melanoides, delle Planorbis, delle Phisa, ma, se capitasse, anche delle più temibili Limnea (che diversamente dalle altre si nutrono sia di alghe che di piante).  

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Il compito di questi invertebrati, oltre a tener pulita la vaschetta, è quello di mangiare le alghe più grandi lasciando quelle unicellulari per le Daphnia, nutrirsi delle deiezioni delle Daphnia,  riconvertendole in cibo per le stesse (indirettamente anche batteri) che le daphnia filtreranno dall’acqua nutrendosene.

Questi invertebrati, inoltre, fungono da segnalatore per i livelli di nitriti/nitrati nella vasca: il loro massivo spostamento verso la superficie della vaschetta è segno inequivocabile di una cattiva qualità dell'acqua, segnalando all'acquariofilo la necessità di intervenire per un provvidenziale cambio parziale di acqua. Vedi l'articolo di approfondimento su questi interessanti invertebrati: "Lumachine d'Acquario

Di seguito un breve video della Daphnia osservata al microscopio biologico: 

FILMATO


La Daphnia magna osservata al microscopio ottico (Video)
(Riferimento:
http://youtu.be/Bqt6T0GpDuU)

 

Un dubbio amletico: come alimentarle? "Fitoplancton commerciale" o "lievito di birra"?

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Dopo una lunga sperimentazione, nessun vantaggio è stato rilevato, nè sull'incremento demografico nella colonia, nè di altro tipo (minior inquinamento ecc,) sulle Daphnia alimentate con il fitoplancton rispetto a quella alimentata con lievito di birra; inoltre, il fitoplancton è risultato essere di più difficile gestione: da conservare rigorosamente in frigorifero ben isolato, scadenza esageratamente breve rispetto alla quantità di prodotto che si trova nella confezione (15 mesi dalla data di confezionamento) una volta aperta la confezione dovrebbe essere consumata entro appena 60 giorni, il prodotto presenta estrema vulnerabilità alla contaminazione batterica, necessita idratazione di almeno 12/24 ore prima di essere utilizzato che il lievito di birra in polvere è decisamente di più semplice gestione: non va conservato in frigo, ma in qualsiasi posto all'asciutto e a temperatura ambiente nella sua bustina originale chiusa, è sempre pronto per l'uso ha lunga scadenza, si prepara velocemente e facilmente ed è pronto all'utilizzo in pochi minuti, non vi è alcun il rischio di contaminazione batterica, ha un costo decisamente irrisorio rispetto al fitoplancton. 

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A tale argomento è stato dedicato un articolo specifico dal titolo "Daphnia magna - Lievito VS Fitoplancton", con tutti i dettali della sperimentazione.  Come in una qualsiasi vasca queste vaschette di allevamento per le Daphnia (anche in simbiosi con delle “lumachine”) costituiscono un ecosistema acquatico a tutti gli effetti e quindi sono soggette al “Ciclo dell’Azoto”: 

come in una qualsiasi vasca in cui l’apporto di nitrati (NO3) non riesce ad essere gestito dai batteri denitratori (che vivono in scarsità di ossigeno), il relativo accumulo a lungo andare diverrà letale.  

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Ebbene, come per ogni qualsiasi vasca sottoposta ad un "Ciclo dell'Azoto" non autosufficiente, occorrerà provvedere anche ai cambi d'acqua! Quando il valore della concentrazione di nitrati (NO3) diviene eccessivo, un cambio equilibrato è indispensabile! Per farli occorre adottare delle tecniche inusuali rispetto a quelle normalmente usate per fare cambi nelle vasche più tradizionali, ma, certamente molto efficaci!

Può sembrare un'operazione critica, dato che un cambio eseguito in maniera standard comporterebbe l'inevitabile cattura ed eliminazione di moltissimi piccoli individui della colonia, fatta con la giusta tecnica è invece un'operazione assai semplice e del tutto sicura per i piccoli Daphnia.

Basta utilizzare una bottiglia come quelle in figura (di quelle per  il latte o i succhi di frutta - ben lavate) alla quale avremo tagliarto con un cutter o con delle forbici il fondo. sul tappo deve essere ricavato un largo foro (avendo cura di lasciare intatta la zona della filettatura; poggiare sull'apertura filettata della bottiglia un quadratino di tessuto di cotone (quello di un fazzoletto o di una camicia andranno benissimo) e quindi avvitarvi il tappo precedentemente forato.

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Avremo così realizzato un perfetto "imputo filtrante", che immesso nella vaschetta come in figura ci consentirà di asportare l'acqua dalla vasca, senza rimuovere gli inquilini! 

 

UTILIZZO

Daphnia Curativa

E' proprio sfruttando la grande capacità di filtrazione di questo piccolo invertebrato che possiamo somministrare specifici medicinali o semplicemente un complesso multivitaminico ai nostri pesci.

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Basterà tenere la giusta quantità di esemplari per almeno 1-2 giorni in un contenitore con la loro acqua ove siano stati miscelate con attenzione le sostanze curative (nel caso della foto un complesso multivitaminico) ed il gioco è fatto. Le Daphnia, avranno assorbito una buona quantità di vitamine; le potremmo quindi somministrare a i pesci come al solito.

Per ulteriori approfondimenti sull'allevamento di questo splendido crostaceo vi invito a leggere l'articolo più specifico dal titolo: "Daphnia magna - Sintesi di un Allevamento di Successo".   Il numero di individui di Daphnia che si trovano in vasca deve essere tenuto sotto controllo. Un'esplosione demografica deve essere gestiita con una buona raccolta (ahimè: cibo vivo) a favore dei pesci che popolano le altre vasche! Non farlo significa avviare l’intera colonia al collasso.

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Vediamo in un breve filmato che illustra come prelevarle:

FILMATO


Raccolta della Daphnia magna (ed utilizzo come cibo vivo) - Video
(Riferimento:
http://youtu.be/ozpP-CoYLqU )

 

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By ValerioSub

Ultimo aggiornamento 18 Novembre 2012  

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