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Infusori & C....

Infusori è l'antico nome dato a microrganismi appartenenti al regno dei Protisti: i Ciliati.

E' con il nome di “infusori” che il mondo dell'acquariofilia conosce i Ciliati, organismi unicellulari caratterizzati dall’essere dotati di “ciglia” con cui sono rivestiti. Sino ad oggi sono state riconosciute e catalogate quasi 10.000 diverse specie con dimensioni che vanno da 12 μm (micron) sino a ben 2-3 m.

CARATTERISTICHE

In verità quando facciamo riferimento agli Infusori intendiamo genericamente tutti i Ciliati, certamente non limitandoci a quei protisti della solasottoclasse detta proprio "Suctoria" (cioè infusori), che annovera alcune specificie di Cliliati predatori unicellulari caratterizzati dall'aver sviluppato speciali organelli succhiatori con i quali catturano le prede, vi riversano all'interno delle secrezioni acide e paralizzanti per poi risucchiare il tutto, sino a "svuotarle".

Le "cilia" che caratterizzano i Ciliati, sono dei veri e propri prolungamenti dell’involucro cellulare. Sono forme cellulari molto antiche tanto che nel percorso evolutivo le si possono ritrovare in organi complessi anche nell’uomo ed in molti animali superiori.

Si nutrono di batteri, Flagellati, Alghe unicellulari, altri ciliati piú piccoli, granuli di amido e goccioline di grasso. Non disdegnano piccoli Rotiferi (anche questi ultimi al pari degli infusori, ottimo “cibo vivo” per avannotti e piccoli pesci.

I “Ciliati” sono presenti in natura  presso ogni corso d’acqua  stagnante (laghi, stagni, pozze naturali, ecc.), e sono diffusissimi anche all’interno dei nostri acquari.

Esistono Ciliati molto lenti nella locomozione come ad esempio la Frontonia che come tutti i ciliati usa le ciglia come dei piccoli remi; fagocita alghe, diatomee ed altri ciliati (da 60-150 μm).

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Altri Ciliati, sono invece molto veloci: uno per tutti i Parameci, mobilissimi Ciliati proprio per questo non facili né da osservare, tanto meno da fotografare sotto il microscopio. La loro forma ricorda una pantofola. Si nutrono di batteri e vivono in acque abbastanza ricche di sostanze organiche. Pur considerando che, in relazione alla massa di questi organismi, la densità dell’acqua è paragonabile a quella del miele (in rapporto alla massa dell’uomo), alcuni ciliati riescono a raggiungere velocità che, fatte le dovute proporzioni, raggiungono l’equivalente di 50Km/h.

 Altre Ciliati usano le “ciglia” non solo per la locomozione, ma anche, come organi per la difesa e/o per la caccia.

Ad esempio i Ciliati del genere Stentor vivono prevalentemente attaccati a muschi ed alghe; sono in grado di cambiare forma estroflettendosi o introflettendosi, nonché andarsene a spasso alla ricerca di cibo o di un nuovo punto dove ancorarsi. A forma di tromba, sono dotati di lunghe ciglia poste all’estremità del cono, facendo vibrare le quali producono dei forti vortici in grado di attrarre all’interno “della tromba” dov’è posta la bocca, degli ottimi bocconcini: prevalentemente batteri ed alghe unicellulari.

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Altro interessante e diffuso organismo è il genere Vorticella; ha la caratteristica forma di una “campana” o “calice rovesciato”. Ogni individuo è sostenuto da un peduncolo lungo almeno 7/8 volte la lunghezza del corpo che lo tiene ancorato a piante, muschi, alghe o qualsiasi altro supporto possa trovarsi in acqua. Il peduncolo, in caso di pericolo, è in grado di ritrarsi in maniera fulminea. Può essere osservato isolato o in piccoli gruppi. Grazie al movimento delle caratteristiche “ciglia” poste all’estremità della campana, è in grado di generare dei “vortici” tramite i quali aspirare piccoli organismi prevalentemente batteri ed alghe unicellulari.

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A seconda della specie il diametro della campana può assumere dimensioni da 40 a 90 μm. 

Altri Ciliati ricorrentemente rilevabili, anche in acquario, sono rappresentati dai generi:

Opercularia, Didinium, ecc.

 

Rotiferi

Non sono Cliliati, non sono nemmeno appartenenti al regno dei Protisti, eppure sono anch'essi dei preziosi e diffusissimi microrganismi in grado di integrare il concetto di "Cibo Vivo" microscopico.

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I Rotiferi sono tra i più interessanti abitanti del regno dei Metazoi, presenti in circa 2000 specie; pur variando da dimensioni che  vanno da circa 40 μm sino ad 1 mm (a seconda delle specie), sono composti da appena un migliaio di cellule (tutte presenti sin dalla nascita). Questi organismi si contraddistinguono per essere articolati in testa, tronco e piede.

Si nutrono di alghe unicellulari, batteri e piccoli protozoi, attratti verso la testa (dov’è la bocca) dai vortici indotti dalle ciglia rotanti di cui essa è dotata (da quì il nome di questa Divisione).

Nell’apparato digerente è molto evidente il mastax, il tipico apparato masticatore dei Rotiferi. Il piede termina con una biforcazione o triforcazione (a seconda della Genere/Specie) chiamate “dita” che servono all’organismo per ancorarsi, grazie anche ad un liquido vischioso che esse secernono. Tale sostanza è anche utilizzata da alcuni Generi di Rotiferi per cementare piccoli frammenti di varia natura con i quali l’individuo costruisce una teca cilindrica in cui si stabilisce.
Nella seconda immagine un esemplare di Colurella uncinata con la tipica conformazione a “cappello da buffone” (80-100 μm).

 

ALLEVAMENTO

I Ciliati venivano chiamati "Infusori" perchè già nell'800 il famoso Lanzano Spallanzaniscopriì che "diverse specie di essi sigenerano dal nulla, nell'acqua in cui sia stato messo in "infusione" del fieno.".

In effetti, molti, molti anni più tardi si scoperse che quei microrganismi "si sviluppano da "cisti" trasportati dal vento, dai peli di animali e da insettie rimasti impigliati tra i fili di fieno" (Franco Cantarano - Il Pianeta Invisibile).

La medesima esperienza possiamo farla in casa, acquistando dei bei fiori per la nostra consorete! Dopo 2-3 giorni il vaso nel quale avremmo messo in bella mostra i fiori, sarà un ottima fonte: basterà raccogliere gli "infusori" con siringa dal pelo dell'acqua (la zona più ricca di ossigeno).

Pur essendo vero che ogni acquariofilo sta di fatto allevando “Ciliati” in tutte le sue vasche, può risultare utile preparare dei superconcentrati proteici di microrganismi per alimentare avannotti appena nati. L’ingrediente di partenza sarà certamente acqua “matura” prelevata da un acquario ben avviato. Questa sarà ricca dei microrganismi necessari per avviare un allevamento più intensivo. In questa descrizione useremo la tecnica della buccia di banana, ma possono essere utilizzate anche patate, cavoli, lattuga, fieno, latte, farina.

  • Essiccare al sole per alcuni giorni mezza buccia di una banana
  • Immettere la buccia essiccata in circa 2 litri d'acqua presi dall'acquario.
  • lasciando riposare il tutto per circa 2 giorni,
  • quando vedremo l’acqua prendere un colore lattiginoso (grazie ad un’abbondante prolificazione batterica) la nostra colonia di ciliati inizierà a svilupparsi molto rapidamente.

ESPERIENZE

In alternativa (soluzione a volte preferibile) è bene coltivare nella stessa vasca dove alleviamo gli avannotti, significative quantità di Vesicularia dubyana (muschio di Giava) o altre piante simili; questa pianta così ricca di capillarità, costituirà un ottimo substrato per lo sviluppo equilibrato, ma assai consistente, di Ciliati ed anche di Rotiferi di tantissime specie, offrendo, contestualmente ad un’appetibile fonte di cibo, anche un gradito rifugio ai nostri piccoli amici!  

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UTILIZZO

Prelevando con una siringa il liquido dalla zona prossima al pelo dell’acqua, somministrarla ai piccoli avannotti nell’ordine di qualche goccia ogni ora! Questo liquido maleodorante è fortemente inquinante va usato con molta parsimonia.

 

FILMATO

Uova di Planorbaris , Video ripresa al microscopio ottico
 
 


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By ValerioSub

 

 

Ultimo aggiornamento 07 Dicembre 2012  

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