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Daphnia magna - Lievito VS Fitoplancton

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Quanti acquariofili si sono cimentati nell'allevamento di questo interessante invertebrato? Quanti ci hanno provato e si sono arresi dopo i primi insuccessi? Tante delicate variabili da combinare tutte insieme: ridotte dimensioni della vasca, tipo di acqua, temperatura, tipo e quantità di luce e poi ancora... cosa dargli da mangiare? Usare il classico lievito di birra o invece affidarsi ai nuovi prodotti a base di fitoplancton?

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Proprio a quest'ultimo quesito proveremo a rispondere in quest'articolo seguendo passo passo le principali tappe di un'interessante sperimentazione sull'alimentazione differenziata della Daphnia magna, analizzandone insieme i risultati.

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Scopo del test

Il test si pone la finalità di sperimentare l'efficacia di un prodotto commerciale a base di fitoplancton per l'alimentazione degli invertebrati, in alternativa ad altre tecniche di alimentazione più tradizionali come l'uso del lievito di birra. Nel caso specifico la sperimentazione è stata effettuata alimentando in vasche separate la Daphnia magna (un piccolo crostaceo noto nel mondo acquariofilo per l'essere utilizzato come "cibo vivo") con del lievito di birra, nell'una (vasca blu), e con il "Quick Phito Fitoplancton" (della BlueLine), nell'altra (vasca rossa).

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Il Fitoplacton

Tale prodotto e definito dal produttore come "interamente naturale con il quale è possibile preparare una soluzione algale che sostituisce le tradizionali colture di fitoplancton. Viene utilizzato come alimento per invertebrati in acquario o per l'allevamento di artemie, rotiferi e dafnie ed in generale di fitoplancon fitofago".

Contiene alghe disidratate, microrganismi (non meglio identificati), lievito ed estratti vegetali.

È commercializzato in confezioni minime da 5g che sono sufficienti per preparare circa 500 lt di soluzione algale... in effetti un pò troppo per normale un uso in un modesto allevamento casalingo non industriale.
Questa considerazione, non del tutto scontata, è alla base delle motivazioni che mi hanno spinto ad avviare la sperimentazione, soprattutto in considerazione della scadenza ravvicinata nel tempo ed alle restrittive modalità di conservazione: 15 mesi dalla data di confezionamento solo con confezione sigillata e conservata in frigorifero (0º-4º C) ed appena 60 giorni dalla data di apertura della confezione (sempre mantenendo la confezione ben chiusa ed in frigo).

 


Condizioni della sperimentazione

Come già accennato nel paragrafo introduttivo, la sperimentazione è stata condotta allevando le Daphnia in 2 vasche pressoché identiche per un periodo d'osservazione complessivo di circa 9 mesi, di cui i primi tre sono serviti per il solo avviamento della seconda vasca.

La prima vasca (che chiameremo vasca Blu) è avviata da oltre 2 anni e contiene la colonia base delle Daphnia magna. Questa colonia è da sempre stata alimentata esclusivamente con il lievito di birra.
La seconda vasca (vasca Rossa) è stata avviata ad hoc per la sperimentazione e solo in questa si è proceduto ad alimentare i crostacei esclusivamente con il fitoplancton.



Avvio della seconda vasca per la sperimentazione

La vasca Rossa è stata allestita, al fianco della vaschetta Blu pre-esistente, usando un nuovo contenitore gemello, cioè con le stesse caratteristiche dell'altra (

  • volume: 8 litri,
  • forma: più o meno un parallelepipedo,
  • pareti: trasparenti,
  • coperchio: grigliato (standard da trasportino)

e mantenuta alle medesime condizioni ambientali: temperatura, esposizione alla luce, areazione ecc.

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Il primo tentativo di avvio della seconda vaschetta è stato disastroso; partedo da normale acqua di rubinetto si è cercato di avviarne l'equilibrio, ma, nonostante la paziente attesa, e che dopo più di un mese i valori chimici dell'acqua fossero nella norma, l'introduzione del primo piccolissimo gruppetto di Daphnia (prelevato dalla vasca Blu) ha visto sterminata la neo colonia nel giro dei primi 10 giorni! Eppure nella vaschetta si trovavano già le lumachine, precedentemente introdotte insieme a della fanghiglia batterica prelevata da un filtro.

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I test effettuati dopo l'incidente hanno dimostrato un fortissimo picco di Nitriti (NO2>1.6mg/l) in seguito al mutamento delle condizioni della vasca (Daphnia + Fitoplancton + lumachine). Essendo una vaschetta senza filtro di tutta la capacità di metabolizzare l'Ammoniaca ed i Nitriti non possono che farsi carico i batteri diffusi nell'acqua e nel poco sedimento del fondo. Acqua nuova, non matura e poco sedimento non hanno consentito la normale evoluzione biologica del ciclo dell'azoto.

Ho quindi provveduto a far ripartire la vasca "rossa" con acqua "matura" prelevata da un acquario ben avviato e altro sedimento (fanghiglia batterica) prelevata da un filtro. Nel tempo ho provveduto ad effettuare progressivi trasferimenti di piccole quantità di sola acqua da un contenitore all'altro sino a quando  le condizioni dell'acqua nelle due vaschette sono divenute identica. Solo a questo punto ho avviato il trasferito di un primo gruppetto test di esemplari di Daphnia magna dalla vaschetta madre alla nuova vasca. Anche le prime lumachine hanno iniziato a popolare la nuova vasca.

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Dopo aver accertato l'avvio stabile della vasca rossa (NO2 < 0,3mg/l) ho introdotto ancora altri pochi esemplari di Daphnia magna (sempre trasferiti dalla vasca blu) che ho iniziato ad alimentare settimanalmente con piccole adeguate quantità di fitoplancton. Si è proseguito, invece, ad alimentare ile altre Daphnia della vasca blu esclusivamente con lievito di birra in polvere diluito con acqua RO (a temperature ambiente), com'era già consuetudine.

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Anche per la vasca Rossa il Fitoplancton veniva diluito in acqua RO, a temperatura ambiente, seguendo le modalità operative e le quantità indicate dal produttore.

Dopo un primo periodo in cui la nuova colonia stentava a moltiplicassi, si è assistito ad una incoraggiante esplosione demografica tanto che le popolazioni delle due vasche divenivano comparabili.
La risposta ai prelievi settimanali in entrambi le vasche (riequilibrio demografico) ha dato i medesimi risultati: prelavavo quantità comparabili di Daphnia da entrambe le vasche e queste si ripopolavano settimanalmente, come un orologio biologico!

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Le evoluzioni delle colonie nelle due vasche hanno proceduto analogamente, tanto da non rilevare alcun vantaggio o criticità nella conduzione di entrambi le vasche con le diverse tecniche di alimentazione; anzi, visto le già citate difficoltà di gestione del prodotto Quick Phyto a parità di "rendimento" sarebbe valsa la pena, forse, adottare più semplicemente il sistema di alimentazione con il tradizionale lievito di birra.

Ma, al di là del primo risultato macroscopico, restava da fa un test intermedio sulla chimica dell'acqua. Ecco i valori della concentrazione di Nitriti (NO2) e di Nitrati (NO3) contenuti nell'acqua delle due vasche test: 

TEST 9/2/2011

Vaschetta Blu (Lievito)

Etichetta "A"

Vaschetta Rossa (fitoplancton)

Etichetta "B"

 NO2 0,3 mg/l <0,3 mg/l
 NO3 50 mg/l

12,5 mg

 Cond.Elettr.

 635uS/cm (a 20°C)

 640uS/cm (a 20°C)


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Al di la della tenuta delle colonie e del loro costante incremento demografico, questi dati tenderebbero a dimostrare che l'alimentazione con il fitoplancton, a parità di condizioni, produrrebbe un minor inquinamento rispetto all'alimentazione con il lievito di birra.

Le lumachine in simbiosi con le Daphnia in entrambe le vasche sono le innocue Melanoides, le Lanorbaris, le Phisa, ma, se dovesse capitare, anche qualche esemplare delle più temibili Limnea (che diversamente dalle altre si nutrono sia di alghe che di piante), non sarebbe stato un problema introdurle.

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La temperatura per entrambi le vasche, dopo l'avvio effettivo della seconda vasca, si è mantenuta in tutto il periodo di osservazione compresa tra i 18°C ed i 21°C (equivalenti alle escursioni della temperatura ambiente durante il periodo di osservazione).

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A sorpresa, dal mese di marzo, mentre l'esplosione demografica nella vasca blu è evidente anche dalle immagini, nella vasca rossa si è registrata un'implosione della colonia. Questo fenomeno inaspettato meritava di essere approfondito. Ho quindi effettuato dei test nell'acqua di entrambe le vasche:

TEST 9/4/2011
Vaschetta Blu (Lievito)Vaschetta Rossa (fitoplancton)
 NO2 <0,3 mg/l <0,3 mg/l
 NO3 >12,5 mg/l,<25 mg/l

 >25 mg/l,<50 mg/l

 Cond.Elettr.

 635uS/cm (a 20°C)

 640uS/cm (a 20°C)

 pH 6,6 6,8

Tentare di trarre delle conclusioni osservando solo alcune delle variabili che sono alla base di un meccanismo complesso come quello di un ecosistema acquatico (per apparentemente semplice che possa sembrare), è sempre un'approssimazione, quindi queste saranno imprecise ed incomplete per definizione.

Il valore che salta agli occhi è certamente quello della concentrazione dei Nitrati (NO3), molto più alto nella vasca blu, alimentata con il fitoplancton. Non v'è dubbio che l'avvio del metabolismo anche in questa nuova vasca, grazie al ciclo dell'azoto assicurato dell'azione dei batteri, progressivamente, ha portato ad un accumulo di Nitrati, in questa situazione smaltibili solo con cambi d'acqua!

Quindi, anche l'alimentazione con il fitoplancton, induce un inevitabile incremento progressivo della concentrazione di Nitrati, difficile dire con questo test  se più o meno velocemente rispetto ad una situazione con alimentazione a lievito! E' pur vero che la produzione dei Nitrati prescindendo dal tipo di alimentazione, è comunque alla base di qualsiasi processo metabolico ove ci siano residui organici:

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Quindi, sarà bene, indipendentemente dal tipo di alimentazione usata, non appena le lumachine danno i primi cenni di sconforto (posizionamento subito fuori dall'acqua), imbuto filtrante alla mano e fare piccoli cambi con acqua ben stabulata!

Altro punto di riflessione lo stimola il valore del pH. I valori della conducibilità elettrica sono tendenzialmente riferibili ad un'acqua abbastanza dura; in effetti di base partiamo da acqua dei rubinetti romani con conducibilità elettrica mediamente sui 530-560 uS/cm a 20°C con KH=10 e GH=11. Normalmente con valori di KH così elevati, in una vasca senza fonti specifiche di acidificazione (Anidride Carbonica, legni o foglie), il valore del pH si dovrebbe assestare su valori decisamente alcalini, compresi tra 7,5 e 8/8,5.

Cosa può portare questo tipo di acqua a divenire acida? Coloro che hanno seguito i miei articoli sull'Acidificazione Naturale hanno ben chiaro cosa intendo con il triangolo dell'equilibrio:

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CO2 = KH x 3 x 10(7-pH)

Difficilmente può essersi incrementata naturalmente la concentrazione di CO2 in acqua, ma più verosimilmente una parte dei carbonati  sono stati assorbiti dalle lumachine e perché no, anche dalle Daphnia, per costituire esoscheletro e guscio (riduzione del KH) e quindi conseguante riduzione del valore del pH (acqua più acida).

Questo ci suggerisce un ulteriore elemento: arricchire l'acqua RO che verrà periodicamente immessa in vasca, per l'alimentazione ed a compensazione della quota evaporata, con una soluzione di Bicarbonato di Potassio (KHCO3) + Bicarbonato di Sodio (NaKCO3) giusto il minimo per incrementare il KH di 3 o 4 punti.

 

Le mie conclusioni

Le conclusioni sono ovvie; visto:

  1. che nessun vantaggio è stato rilevato nell'incremento demografico delle Daphnia alimentate a fitoplancton rispetto a alla colonia alimentata a lievito di birra,
  2. che il citato prodotto risulta di più difficile gestione:
    • da conservare rigorosamente in frigorifero in un doppio involucro isolante,
    • con scadenza esageratamente breve rispetto alla quantità di prodotto che si trova nella confezione (che una volta aperta deve essere consumata entro solo 60 gg),
    • presenta estrema vulnerabilità alla contaminazione batterica,
    • necessità di essere idratato almeno 12/24 ore prima di essere utilizzato,
  3. che il lievito di birra in polvere è decisamente di più semplice gestione:
    1. non va conservato in frigo, ma in qualsiasi posto all'asciutto ed a temperatura ambiente nella sua bustina originale chiusa,
    2. sempre pronto per l'uso senza specifici problemi di scadenza,
    3. si mescola facilmente con l'acqua ed è pronto all'utilizzo in pochi minuti,
    4. non vi è alcun il rischio di contaminazione batterica,
    5. ha un costo decisamente irrisorio rispetto al citato prodotto a base di fitoplancton,

la mia personale scelta sarà quella di privilegiare l'utilizzo del lievito di birra in polvere, ricorrendo a prodotti a base di fitoplancton, solo residualmente (finire le scorte)!

 

Che dire ancora, comunque vogliate alimentarle... buone Daphnia a tutti!

By ValerioSub

 

Attenzione: i risultati di questo test e le considerazioni che ne derivano, sono riconducibili esclusivamente all'allevamento della Daphnia magna. Valutazioni inerenti l'utilizzo del prodotto in altri contesti richiedono altri test ad hoc.

 

 

 

Ultimo aggiornamento 10 Aprile 2011  

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