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Home Acquariofilia Cibo Vivo Lumachine d'Acquario

Lumachine d'Acquario

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Lumachine d'Acquario...

Tutti gli acquariofili conoscono le "lumachine" che normalmente vengono involontariamente importati nell'acquario tramile le microscopiche uova che si trovano sovente nascoste nelle piante. Parliamo delle più comuni ed innocue Melanoides, delle Planorbaris, delle Physa, ma, anche delle più temibili Limnyea (che diversamente dalle altre si nutrono sia di alghe che di piante). Come vedremo non tutte le lumachine sono uguali e non tutte sono dannose per le nostre piante, anzi!



Genere Melanoides

Gasteropode originario del Sud dell’Asia ed Est dell’Africa, dal guscio a forma di cono a spirale che può giungere al massimo ad una lunghezza di circa 2.5 cm.Sono molto utili negli acquari con fondo a granulometria molto fine: smuovendo il  fondo impediscono la formazione di pericolose sacche di gaso sotto la superficie. E' un invertebrato che difficilmente sopravvive a temperature inferiori ai 18°C. Una cosa importante da sapere è che non mangiano le foglie vive; si nutrono principalmente dei detriti che si depositano sul fondo, scarti di cibo e foglie marce.


L'opercolo corneo di queste lumache le rende capaci di chiudere la loro conchiglia per proteggersi dalla siccità e dai predatori. Possono sopravvivere facilmente a periodi di siccità per dei mesi, nascoste nel fondo o passare indenni attraverso processi digestivi di uccelli o pesci.

Per quanto concerne la riproduzione prodursi per partenogenesi, sia come ermafrodita sufficiente, sia previo accoppiamento; diversamente da altri gasteropodi, è viviparo, è in grado di partorire fino a 70 piccoli esemplari già formati ed autosufficienti, con un guscio di appena 1, max 2 mm di lunghezza.



 Esemplari del genere Melanoides - Video ripresa in macrofotografia  e microscopio ottico

Lumachine acquatiche di questo genere sono del tutto innocue in acquario, anzi utilissime e perfettamente integrate all'ecosistema dello stesso. 



Genere Planorbaris

Dalla caratteristica forma a spirale, sviluppata sullo stesso piano, con dimensioni sino ad 1 – 1,5 cm, si trovano in tante varietà: rosse, rosa, leopard (o var. "wild"), albine, viola e blu.E' un invertebrato che Vive bene a temperatura tra i 5 ed i 30°C.Le Planorbaris si nutrono principalmente dei detriti che si depositano sul fondo, scarti di cibo e foglie marce. Non mangiano le foglie vive e sono ottime spazzine. Si riproducono depositando grappoli di uova su vetri e piante che si schiudono dopo circa 20 giorni.

Quello che segue è un interessante video realizzato in micro osservazione al microscopio ottico (100x - campo chiaro e campo scuro) di una deposizione di uova di un invertebrato del genere Planorbaris:  


Uova di Planorbaris , Video ripresa al microscopio ottico

A maturazione avvenuta ogni piccolo esemplare è del tutto autonomo, attivo ed in continua ricerca di cibo. Quello che segue è un altro interessante video realizzato in micro osservazione di esemplari neonati di Planorbaris (40x - campo scuro):


Neonate di Planorbaris - Video ripresa al microscopio ottico (40x)
(Riferimento: )

Lumachine acquatiche di questo genere sono del tutto innocue in acquario, anzi utilissime e perfettamente integrate all'ecosistema dello stesso.


Zoom Zoom 

Physa e Limnyea

Gli individui di entrambi i generi sono molto simili tanto da essere spesso confusi tra loro. In effetti a parte i diversi gusti alimentari, hanno anche le medesime caratteristiche fisiche e similidudini comportamentali. Purtroppo, diversamente dalle Physa,  le Limnyea  si nutrono sia di alghe che di piante.  Entrambi raggiungono dimensioni intorno ad 1,5 centimetri, Pur essendo ermafroditi hanno bisogno di accoppiarsi per deporre le uova, anche se è appurato che in presenza di condizioni ambientali estreme può arrivare a riprodursi per partenogenesi.


Come distinguere i due generi:

1) la Limnea ha una conchiglia sinistrorsa (cioè con le spire che si svolgono verso destra), mentre quella della Physa è “destrorsa”.

2) La parte terminale della conchiglia nella Limnea termina con un cono molto evidente ed acuto che non nella Physa.

3) la Limnyea ha il piede di forma meno allungata, con la parte terminale meno appuntita.

Zoom Zoom Zoom    

Anche qui, giova ricordare che lumachine acquatiche del genere Physa sono del tutto innocue in acquario, anzi utilissime e perfettamente integrate all'ecosistema dello stesso.



Le lumache in acquario esercitano un’importante azione di controllo nei confronti delle Diatomee. Inoltre, è ottimo l’impiego di questi invertebrati per allevare piccoli crostacei filtratori come ad esempio le Daphnia con i quali possono vivere in simbiosi.

Zoom Zoom

Loro malgrado, soprattutto se ci si trova davanti ad un'invasione dei più temibili invertebrati del genere Limnyea, un uso alternativo come cibo vivo potrebbe essere preso in seria considerazione, magari semplicemente per gestire repentini incrementi demografici in una vasca.

Il protocollo prevede l’estrazione dell’animale dal guscio protettivo oppure la frantumazione del guscio dando ai pesci la parte nuda dell’organismo.

Alcuni grossi ciclidi sembra siano in grado di provvedere da soli al tutto.Qualunque utilizzo si voglia fare di questi invertebrati, è di fondamentale importanza, per la salvaguardia delle delle nostre piante acquatiche, saper distinguere le innocue ed utili Physa dalle meno gradite Limnyea. 



Allevare le lumachine d'acqua dolce, che siano del genere Melanoides, Planorbaris, Physa, ma, anche le più temibili Limnyea, è facile e offre grande soddisfazioni. E' sufficiente allevarlie in piccoli contenitori o mini acquari dedicati, con o senza filtrazione, con o senza luce articiale, all'interno del proprio appartamento o fuori, in una vasca in giardino o in balcone.

Nell'ambito delle esperienze personali, belle soddisfazioni ed interessantissie micro e macro osservazioni le ottengo da un piccolissimo e poco impegnativo contenitore cilidrico (di poco meno di 2 lt netti) che in realtà è un vaso portafiori riorganizzato ad acquario: senza filtro, con una discreta ma sufficiente illuminazione LED, di sole piante, rigorosamente senza pesci (visto le dimensioni è fuori discussionei). Contiene solo delle piante, che vario sostituendole nel tempo (nel momento in cui viene scritto questo articolo vi è della Vescicularia dubiana - overo Muschio di Giava - dell'Anubias barteri nana), e delle lumachine acquatiche del genere Melanoides; il fondo è in ceramizzato a granulometria medio/fine.


Altrimenti, tengo generalmente Planorbaris, Physa, Limnyea in condivisione con le Daphnia magne (senza filtro, pochissimo fondo in sabbia scura e luce naturale - non dretta):


Oppure altre  Melanoides, in una piccola vasca di accrescimento per piccoli Ancistrus, con filtrazione meccanico-biologic, fotoperiodo a luce LED e discreto fondo in sabbia chiara.


Melanoides gigante

L'eccezionale situazione rilevata in questa vasca, merita mensione: grazie ai residui di alimentazione sul fondo, non consumati dai piccoli ancistrus, un esemplare di Melanoides, in pochi mesi è riuscita a raggiungere la dimensione ragguardevole di quasi 2,5 cm di lunghezza (quasi il doppio della massima lunghezza che mi è capitato di rilavare in Melanoises adulte).



Nell'ultima foto si noti il particolare ben evidente dell'opercolo corneo che la  rende capaci di chiudersi ermeticamente per proteggersi dalla siccità, predatori ed altro (nello specifico si stava proteggendo dall'eccessiva temperatura dell'acqua).


Torna all'Articolo Principale

By ValerioSub

Ultimo aggiornamento 18 Novembre 2012  

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