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Home Acquariofilia Fai-da-te PilloLED n° 6 – E’ vero che la luce dei LED fa male agli occhi?

PilloLED n° 6 – E’ vero che la luce dei LED fa male agli occhi?

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PilloLED n° 6 – E’ vero che la luce dei LED fa male agli occhi?

PilloLED per i LettoriZoom  

Questo tema risulta oggi essere assai dibattuto e, come spesso accade con le nuove tecnologie, è oggetto di ampie e confuse campagne di demonizzazione che tendono a favorire le tecnologie più tradizionali.

Ormai è noto a tutti che l’esposizione ai raggi ultravioletti può causare danni ai tessuti organici (pelle ed occhi) mentre il forte dibattito di questi ultimi tempi si sta concentrando sui potenziali pericoli anche della luce “blu”.

Diciamolo subito con chiarezza: sebbene sia in uso accusare in maniera generica la luce blu, quella oggetto di attenzione è esclusivamente la luce “blu-violetta”, più esattamente quella luce con una lunghezza d’onda inferiore a 440nm.

Nel libro “LED, Penultima Frontiere – PilloLED per Acquariofili Intraprendenti” viene spiegato come  “la luce sia un fenomeno ‘vibratorio’, (una ‘oscillazione’ elettromagnetica che si ripropone periodicamente con una determinata frequenza con una lunghezza d’onda (λ) che, nell’ordine di grandezza della luce visibile, si misura in nano metri (nm, cioè un milionesimo di millimetro).”

La luce è energia! La sua energia risulta essere inversamente proporzionale alla sua lunghezza d’onda. Ogni colore ha la sua lunghezza d’onda:

Violetto inferiore a 390nm

Blu-Violetto tra 390nm e 440nm

Blu tra 440nm e 500nm

Verde tra 500nm e 570nm

Giallo tra 570nm e 590nm

Arancione tra 590nm e 620nm

Rosso tra 620nm e 700nm

Più è corta la lunghezza d’onda più è alta l’energia elettromagnetica ad essa associata.

Quindi, la luce blu ha certamente minore energia di quella ultravioletta ma più energia di ogni altro colore. Trattandosi di luce “visibile” la parte frontale dell’occhio umano è strutturata per lasciarla passare, consentendogli di raggiungere la retina, diversamente dalla luce “violetta” ed “ultravioletta”  che viene, invece, in buona parte filtrata.

Una quantità eccessiva di luce nell’intervallo ultravioletto e blu-violetto può danneggiare l’occhio umano. Oltre a provocare un’infiammazione dolorosa della congiuntiva e della cornea, può anche causare danni al cristallino (p. es. cataratta) e, in particolare, alla retina (degenerazione maculare). (fonte Zeisss)

Come sempre accade le cose non sono mai tutte bianche o tutte nere; infatti anche la luce di questa parte dello spettro elettromagnetico, nella giusta misura svolge  molte funzioni positive per l’organismo umano.

E’ comunque, buona precauzione, evitare di guardare direttamente la luce blu e violetta, in particolare quella con una lunghezza d’onda inferiore a 440nm, ma anche la luce bianca, particolarmente "fredda" (alta temperatura di colore), contenente una forte componente Blu/violetta. Questa raccomandazione ovviamente è estesa a tutte le fonti, artificiali e naturali, in grado di produrre una luce di elevata intensità, sia bianca (con una temperatura di colore molto alta) che blu (nello spettro del blu-violetto <440nm).

Sono convinto che nulla spiga le cose meglio di un grafico; nel diagramma sottostante sono rappresentati la curva dell'energia equivalente (in KJoule sprigionata da 1 mole di fotoni) in corrispondenza alla lunghezza d'onda tipica di ciascun colore e la soglia di sicurezza oltre la quale la luce è bene sia gestita con maggior livello di attenzione.


Sempre nel libro “LED, Penultima Frontiere – PilloLED per Acquariofili Intraprendenti” vengono spiegati con un linguaggio semplice ed intuitivo, i “segreti della temperatura di colore” e della “luce colorata”, anche tramite l’analisi comparativa dello spettro luminoso delle varie tipologie di luce.

Cosa c’entrano quindi i LED, con la luce che fa male?

In effetti c’entrano tutti i dispositivi (non solo i LED) in grado di produrre una luce nel cui spettro sia fortemente presente la componente blu-violetta. Ma questo potenziale pericolo non è insito solo nella luce artificiale; anche il nostro sole, infatti, esempio di luce naturale per eccellenza, non fa eccezioni.

Nell’ambito della luce artificiale, da tenere sotto controllo sono certamente i tubi fluorescenti, (anche le cosiddette lampadine compatte a “basso consumo”) che possiedono uno spettro molto spesso poco selettivo, tanto da contenere forti componenti della luce incriminata. Per quanto riguarda i LED, solo quelli che producono una luce molto fredda o specificamente blu-violetta necessitano, prudenzialmente, una più attenta gestione.

Fortunatamente i LED, diversamente ad altre tipologie di lampade che normalmente ci circondano (da anni nelle nostre case e posti di lavoro), ce ne sono di varia tipologia e producono una luce con uno spettro molto selettivo; per la quotidiana illuminazione degli ambienti dove viviamo, basterà scegliere quelle assolutamente sicure oltre che con "colori" più rilassanti. In particolare alcuni studi avanzati condotti da alcune famose case leader nel campo dell’illuminotecnica, hanno individuato nella temperatura di colore di 3200K il valore ideale per i LED a luce calda, maggiormente adatti ad ambienti tipicamente di relax (camere da letto, soggiorni, ecc.).

Per ambienti più tecnici, dove sia necessario “vederci meglio”, è preferibile illuminare gli ambienti con una luce “naturale” o poco più fredda: potranno essere scelti LED con una temperatura di colore più elevata (da 4200 a 5000-5500K). Una luce più vicina a quella detta "naturale", corrispondente alla luce del sole (intorno a 5500K), consente al nostro occhio di distinguere meglio i dettagli; è infatti questa la luce che corrisponde alla massima sensibilità dell'occhio umano.

Luce con una temperatura di colore superiore a 6000K  ha già una forte componente di blu, anche se, fortunatamente, con una lunghezza d'onda dominante normalmente sui 470nm, quindi ben diversa  dalla citata soglia di sicurezza (440nm). In condizioni di applicazione prolungata è comunque una luce che può affaticare l’occhio.

Quali sono, dunque, le precauzioni consigliabili, nell’ambito delle applicazioni in acquariologia, visto che in questo contesto, l’utilizzo di LED a luce Blu (450nm) e luce bianca molto fredda (>6000K), sono fortemente raccomandati in relazione alla provata efficacia nella fitostimolazione per le piante acquatiche (acquari d’acqua dolce) e per la coltivazione dei coralli (acquari marini), dove in questi casi i livelli della componente blu richiesti sono decisamente molto più forti?

Soprattutto, quindi, con l'uso di LED a luce fredda, è raccomandabile evitare sempre di guardare "direttamente" e "prolungatamente" la fonte luminosa durante le fasi di installazione e di conduzione di prove sui LED, ma anche durante le attività manutentive dell’acquario. Una volta in esercizio, invece, l’acqua del nostro acquario, effettuerà una utile filtrazione, attenuandone il flusso ed evitando l’irraggiamento diretto verso i nostri occhi.

Anche in questo caso, “GoLED”, negozio specializzato nella progettazione e nella vendita di sistemi LED all’avanguardia, sarà in grado di supportare la scelta di qualsiasi soluzione LED certificata e sicura.

By Valerio La Scalia
Ultimo aggiornamento 08 Ottobre 2016  

LED: il Libro

PilloLED per Acquariofili Intraprendenti
La nuova rivoluzione della luce è in atto: partecipare non è un’opzione, ma un dovere civico!